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Proof of his (peace be upon him) prophethood.

The agreement of the messengers concerning the call to the Oneness of Allah

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Hans Kung

Swiss Theologist
He cannot be denied except by the ungrateful
“Muhammad is a genuine prophet in all the sense of the word and we can never deny that Muhammad is the one who guides to the road of salvation.”

He called others to worship Allah Alone and to abandon the worship of anything else, in agreement with all the prophets. Whoever compares what was brought by Moses and Jesus (peace be upon them both) and what was brought by Muhammad (pbuh) regarding true faith, perfect laws and beneficial knowledge, would know that they all come from the one source of light, i.e. the light of prophet-hood.

The miracles

He performed miracles and gave clear signs that could only be revealed by prophets of Allah. It is a characteristic strategy of Allah that He makes supernatural activities take place at the hands of prophets to serve as miracles for them, and as a proof of their truthfulness, as well as a means to establish an argument against their own people. Each prophet’s miracles matched the kind of practices in which the people that they were sent to at the time excelled, i.e. Prophet Moses’ miracles of magic were appropriate as it was what the people at his time excelled in. Allah outwitted the magic of the sorcerers with the miracles of Moses, which he was able to perform by the will of Allah, and the magicians were unable to oppose it in spite of their experience in and in-depth knowledge of the different types of magic they practiced. The people to which Prophet Jesus (pbuh) was sent excelled in the arts of medicine and therapeutics, and he healed diseases which they found to be hard to cure; he even resurrected the dead, all by the will of Allah. These are all sensory miracles, and they are limited to time and space, since they did not have the status of being global and eternal. Part of Prophet Muhammad’s miracles were sensory and they include: water springing from between his fingers, the increase of the small amount of food which he was holding in the palms of his hands to be enough to feed all those who were with him, with even some left overs, the increase in the amount of water to the extent that all the army was able to drink from it and also make wudu’ (ablution). There was also the tree trunk which cried like a baby when our beloved Prophet stopped standing next to it and stood on the pulpit instead, the stone in Mecca which greeted him, the tree which moved with him when he pulled it (to stand next to another tree), the gravel that was in his hands which praised Allah, the healing of the sick by the will of Allah, and the list goes on...

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Deborah Potter

American Journalist
Words of Allah
“When I completed reading the Qur’an I was overwhelmed with a feeling that this is the truth, which contains the conclusive answers about the issues of creation, etc., and that it provides us with events in a logical manner that we find contradicting in other religious books. The Qur’an speaks about them in a fabulous style and decisive manner that leaves no room for doubt that this is the truth, and that this speech is certainly from Allah..

From those miracles, the Qur’an also records the Israa’ and Mi’raj in which the Prophet of Allah (pbuh) went on a night journey to Al-Aqsa Mosque in Palestine and ascended through the seven heavens until he reached Sidratul Montaha (which is a tree in the seventh heaven, right under Allah’s throne). Allah says: {Glorified (and Exalted) is He (Allâh) [above all that (evil) they associate with Him] (Tafsir Qurtubî) Who took His slave (Muhammad [sal-Allâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam]) for a journey by night from Al-Masjid Al-Harâm (at Makkah) to Al-Masjid Al-Aqsâ (in Jerusalem), the neighbourhood whereof We have blessed, in order that We might show him (Muhammad [sal-Allâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam]) of Our Ayât (proofs, evidences, lessons, signs, etc.). Verily, He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer.}(Al-Isrâ’:1)

Additionally, there was the miracle of the splitting of the moon, which was also mentioned in the glorious Qur’an. Allah Almighty says: {The Hour has drawn near, and the moon has been cleft asunder (the people of Makkah requested Prophet Muhammad [sal-Allâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam] to show them a miracle, so he showed them the splitting of the moon).}(al-Qamar:1)

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Nasri Salhab

Lebanese Author
A great difference between them
“There is no religion like Islam, where honoring the prophets and messengers who preceded the Arab Prophet is concerned. Islam obliges its believers to honor these prophets and messengers and believe in them. Moreover, there is no religion like Islam where respecting other heavenly revealed religions that preceded it is concerned.”

The disbelievers demanded a clear miracle from the Prophet (pbuh) which could prove his truthfulness, so they wanted him to split the moon. They promised him that if he did that, they would believe in him. It was on a night when there was a full moon, i.e. the fourteenth night of the Islamic Calendar, which is the night when the moon is the clearest and fullest. The Messenger of Allah (pbuh) asked his Lord to grant him their request, so the moon split into two halves: one half hung over Mount Safa, while the other in the opposite direction, by Mount Qika’an. After this great miracle took place, the unbelievers of the tribe of the Quraish still did not believe in him. Instead, they considered what happened as magic, which is the nature of those who oppose the religion of Allah when the truth destroys their authority and its light obliterates their erroneous ways. Subsequently, such people do not hesitate to try to scheme against it and confront it; either by distorting its principles, or by altering facts, thinking this is sufficient to eliminate the truth.

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Régis Blachère

French Orientalist
An eloquent Arabic tongue
“Verses which the Prophet Muhammad recited in the great chapters of the Qur’an leave those statements of eloquent humans that can be invoked through the fabricated texts which we have received, far behind.”

Allah says: {2] And if they see a sign, they turn away and say: “This is continuous magic.” 3] They denied (the Verses of Allâh – this Qur’ân) and followed their own lusts. And every matter will be settled (according to the kind of deeds, good deeds will take their doers to Paradise, and similarly evil deeds will take their doers to Hell).}(al-Qamar:2-3)

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Maurice Bucaille

A French Surgeon and Scientist
The Qur’an and modern science, side by side
“It was in a totally objective spirit, and without any preconceived ideas, that I first examined the Qur’anic Revelation. I wanted to study the degree of compatibility between the Qur’anic text and the data of modern science…. It was only when I examined the text very closely in Arabic that I could record a list of them (such compatibilities), at the end of which I came to understand that the Qur’an did not contain a single statement that contradicted any modern scientific point of view.”

The miracle of the Quran will survive until the Resurrection Day

The Holy Qur’an is the greatest of those miracles and the only one that will survive throughout the ages and the succession of eras. It is both a spiritual and intellectual miracle, as well as a sign of prophet-hood, because it is the most eloquent of books which was revealed by Allah to a man who could neither read nor write. He challenged the eloquent Arabs at that time to create even one surah like that of the Qur’an. The miracle and the fact of the challenge in the Qur’an (that it can never be prevailed over) cannot be denied except by the arrogant; for the Qur’an is miraculous in its eloquence, rhetoric, composition and style, as well as its contents regarding the news of the bygone past as well as the distant future. This is in addition to what it contains of perfect laws, lofty morals, guidance, light and blessings.

Moreover, there are certain scientific miracles mentioned in the Qur’an regarding different parts of the universe which have only been proven to be true by today’s scientific discoveries, and such scientific discoveries identically match the description brought by the revelation fourteen centuries ago. This, indeed, is one of the clearest evidence of the truthfulness of the prophet-hood of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). Modern-day science has only recently discovered, for instance, the phases of the fetus in its mother’s womb, the presence of the waterway barrier between fresh and salt water in the sea, as well as many other discoveries. One of the greatest proofs that the Qur’an is from Allah is that it has been preserved for more than fourteen centuries from any distortion and tampering. The original Qur’an has never been distorted or tampered with, and its reciters are never bored of repeating its recitation. Allah says: {Verily, We, it is We Who have sent down the Dhikr (i.e. the Qur’ân) and surely We will guard it (from corruption).}(al-Hijr:9)

Moreover, through the Qur’an Allah preserved true faith. He placed the most perfect law within it and established this law in the best of nations. Consequently, this shows us that the miracle of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) is far distinguished from the miracles of his fellow prophets by its greatness, universality and immortality. The challenge (to bring one verse like it) remains for all, but failure will remain to be the end of anyone who tries to come with anything similar to it, throughout all the ages, even until the Day of Judgment. Allah says: Say: “If mankind and the jinn were together to produce the like of this Qur’ân, they could not produce the like thereof, even if they helped one another (Al-Isrâ:88)

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F. Montague

French Thinker and Traveller
It is the word of Allah
“I do not, for a moment, have any doubt about the message of Muhammad. I think that he is the seal of the prophets and messengers, that he was sent to all of mankind, and that his message came to seal the revelation that came down in the Torah and the Bible. The best proof of that is the miraculous Qur’an. I refuse all the thoughts of Pascale, that European scientist who was vindictive against Islam and Muslims, except for one thought, which is when he said that the Qur’an was not authored by Muhammad as the Bible was not authored by Matthew.”

News of the bygone past and the distant future

The prophet (pbuh) predicted the occurrence of several events of this world and its nations. These events happened just as was predicted. There was the conquering of Sham (Syria), Iraq and Constantinople. He also told us about the stories of the nations of the past and how they dealt with their prophets and messengers, starting with Adam (pbuh) and then all the other prophets and messengers, such as Prophet Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus (peace be upon them all). One of the future events that eventually came to pass was referred to when the Persians defeated the Romans. Almighty Allah revealed in the Qur’an that after a few years the Romans would be victorious over the Persians. Allah said: }1] Alif-Lâm-Mîm. [These letters are one of the miracles of the Qur’ân, and none but Allâh (Alone) knows their meanings.] 2] The Romans have been defeated. 3] In the nearest land (Syria, Iraq, Jordan, and Palestine), and they, after their defeat, will be victorious. 4] Within three to nine years. The decision of the matter, before and after (these events) is only with Allâh, (before the defeat of the Romans by the Persians, and after the defeat of the Persians by the Romans). And on that day, the believers (i.e. Muslims) will rejoice (at the victory given by Allâh to the Romans against the Persians) – 5] With the Help of Allâh. He helps whom He wills, and He is the All-Mighty, the Most Merciful.6] (It is) a Promise of Allâh (i.e. Allâh will give victory to the Romans against the Persians), and Allâh fails not in His Promise, but most of men know not. 7] They know only the outside appearance of the life of the world (i.e. the matters of their livelihood, like irrigating or sowing or reaping), and they are heedless of the Hereafter.}(Ar¬-Rûm:1-7)

This truly took place, as foretold by Allah Almighty.

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Aldo Mieli

French Orientalist
The work of Allah
“Suddenly, in the age of deep decadence in countries that were previously considered part of the ancient empire of Diocletian, in the heart of the Arabian deserts, an opponent arose and observed this old teetering Empire. He was also a strong opponent of the new kingdoms that were emerging in the West. This opponent’s greatness continued increasing, as if God’s permanent care was leading his loyal soldiers to jihad and complete victory. The conquest of Syria and Egypt was shortly followed by the fall of the Sassanid Empire, and the friends of Constantine became threatened with the same fate. “

The messengers foretold of his coming and that he would be the seal of the prophets

The prophets (peace be upon them all) foretold about the coming of Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) long before his time. They even described how he would be sent, where his country would be, and that kings and nations will submit to him as well as to his Ummah (followers). They also mentioned the spread of his religion. He is the seal of the prophets, and if he had not been sent, this would have invalidated the prophecies of the prophets that ushered his coming.

People of the book attested to the truthfulness of the Prophet (peace be upon him)

Some people of the book attested to the truthfulness of the Prophet (pbuh) and that he was clearly mentioned in both the old and new testaments (at-Tawrah and al-Injeel). These were the type of people not blinded by intolerance; such as Baheira the monk, Waraqah bin Nawfal, Salman Al-Farsi, ‘Abdullah bin Salam, and Zaid bin Sa’na.

Allah granting him (peace be upon him) victory, and his qualities and good morals

His victory over those nations which fought against him is a proof of his prophet-hood, since it is impossible for someone to claim – falsely - that he was sent by Allah, and then still be supported by Allah with victory and empowerment, predominance over enemies, the spread of his call, and a large number of followers. Rather, these are gains that can only be granted to a truthful prophet. The way he (pbuh) performed his acts of worship and also his chastity, truthfulness, impeccable conduct and good morals; for his Lord had trained him and fashioned him in the best manner that could be. {And verily, you (O Muhammad [sal-Allâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam]) are on an exalted (standard of) character.}( al-Qalam / Noon:4)

These characteristics hardly ever all come together except in the case of a truthful prophet.

At-tawator by which his (peace be upon him) prophet-hood, his miracles and the fact that he was unlearned were related

At-tawator (when one narration is stated repeatedly by many different narrators) by which the prophet-hood of Muhammad (pbuh) and his miracles were related. Whoever contemplates over the conditions of the prophets and studies their history will realize and be certain that no matter which way one proves the prophet-hood of any one of the prophets, the proof of Prophet Muhammad’s prophet-hood using any of these ways is more convincing. For example, if you consider how the prophet-hoods of Moses and Jesus (peace be upon them) were related, you will find that they were related by at-tawator and that at-tawator by which the prophet-hood of Prophet Muhammed was related is even greater and more authenticated, not to mention more recent. The same could be said about at-tawator of their miracles and their proofs; It is even greater in the case of Muhammad (pbuh), since his proofs are many. His proof of the glorious Qur’an is even the greatest of all proofs, for it is now still related through at-tawator, both vocally and in writing.

The illiteracy of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) is another evidence of his miracles. Allah revealed the Qur’an to His Prophet Muhammad, a man who did not know how to read or write, and this illiteracy clearly and undoubtedly denotes that the Qur’an was revealed to him by Allah, especially as he (pbuh) had lived among his people for many years, and if he (pbuh) could read and write they certainly would have claimed that what he came with was of his own invention and a construction of his own ideas. Allah says: {47] And thus We have sent down the Book (i.e. this Qur’ân) to you (O Muhammad [sal-Allâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam]), and those whom We gave the Scripture [the Taurât (Torah) and the Injîl (Gospel) aforetime] believe therein as also do some of these (who are present with you now like ‘Abdullâh bin Salâm) and none but the disbelievers reject Our Ayât [(proofs, signs, verses, lessons, etc.,) and deny Our Oneness of Lordship and Our Oneness of worship and Our Oneness of Our Names and Qualities: i.e. Islâmic Monotheism]. 48] Neither did you (O Muhammad [sal-Allâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam]) read any book before it (this Qur’ân) nor did you write any book (whatsoever) with your right hand. In that case, indeed, the followers of falsehood might have doubted.}(Al-’Ankabût :47-48)

This also confirms that what he (pbuh) brought is from Allah Almighty and not from himself. Allah says: {He it is Who sent among the unlettered ones a Messenger (Muhammad [sal-Allâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam]) from among themselves, reciting to them His Verses, purifying them (from the filth of disbelief and polytheism), and teaching them the Book (this Qur’ân, Islâmic laws and Islâmic jurisprudence) and Al-Hikmah (As-Sunnah: legal ways, orders, acts of worship of Prophet Muhammad [sal-Allâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam]). And verily, they had been before in manifest error;}( al-Jumu’ah:20)

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Thomas Carlyle

Scottish Writer and Historian
The Morals of Prophethood
“Withal I like Mahomet for his total freedom from cant. He is a rough (rugged) self-helping son of the wilderness (who had an opinion of his own); does not pretend to be what he is not. There is no ostentatious pride in him; but neither does he go much upon humility: he is there as he can be, in (his patched) cloak and shoes of his own clouting; speaks plainly to all manner of Persian Kings, Greek Emperors, (telling them) what it is they are bound (and ordered) to do (to have good in this life and the next); knows well enough, about himself, the respect due unto thee.”

In the description of the illiterate Prophet (pbuh), it is said that he recited the verses of Allah , i.e. Allah’s revelation, to the illiterate Arabs, and purified them and taught them the book; i.e. related it to them (verbally), just as the messengers used to teach the nations that could write using written material. He also taught them the wisdom that former messengers had taught and brought to their nations. All of this shows the great magnitude of this miracle which was performed by one who was illiterate, i.e. this Prophet (pbuh). For he, in spite of being illiterate, came with all the benefits that his nation needed, which the literate messengers had also come with for their nations, without omitting any of them. Thus, bringing such benefits, on the part of an unlettered man as Prophet Muhammad was, proved to be more of a miracle than when they were brought by the literate prophets, such as Moses (pbuh).